LANGUAGE & LINGUISTICS IN MELANESIA

Journal of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea ISSN: 0023-1959

LLM Vol. 35, 2017

Editorial Comment

In 2017, LLM hopes to publish many more interesting and thought-provoking papers on current research in the fields of Papuan/Austronesian, as well as general/descriptive linguistics - all contributing to the search for our HUMAN identity.

We want to promote and showcase all linguistic research conducted in the South Pacific region, be it in language acquisition, psycholinguistics, language policy, sociolinguistics, language education – or any other relevant field.

THINK, WRITE – & SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS!

This year’s volume opens up with Steven A. Miller’s observations regarding language relationships in the Sissano Lagoon, Papua New Guinea.

Editor, LLM


CONTENTS

Skou Languages Near Sissano Lagoon, Papua New Guinea - S. A. Miller (SIL) ............................. 1



LLM Vol. 34, 2016

Editorial Comment

 LLM starts 2016, the sixth year of its online life, with a bang! This Volume 34/1 opens with an interesting article, Counting systems of the Strickland-Bosavi languages, Papua New Guinea by Peter D. Dwyer and Monica Minnegal of the University of Melbourne, and three other fascinating reads are already in the pipeline! LLM thanks all the researchers and contributors, to whom it owes its existence.

CONTENTS 

 Counting systems of the Strickland-Bosavi languages, Papua New Guinea by Peter D. Dwyer and Monica Minnegal of the University of Melbourne .................................................................................................. 1

 Orthography as Social Practice: Lessons from Papua New Guinea by John M. Clifton (SIL International and University of North Dakota)   .....................................................................................................................  37

 Papuan Kâte and Austronesian Jabêm: Long Contact, Little Convergence by Joel Bradshaw (University of Hawai?i)   ........................................................................................................  59

  Borrowing from Bislama into Nkep (East Santo, Vanuatu): Quantitative and qualitative perspectives by Miriam Meyerhoff (Victoria University of Wellington, NZ) ................................................................... 77

Numeral Systems, Internal Subgrouping, and Language Contact in Malakula by John Lynch (USP). 95

 Pronouns and Inclusory Constructions in Kove by Hiroko Sato (University of Hawai?i) .................... 107

 An Account of Possession in Larevet by Julie Barbour (University of Waikato, NZ) ......................... 139

 Some  Observations on Kyaka-Kewa Cognates by Karl Franklin (SIL) ............................... 140

LLM Volume 33 (1), 2015

Editorial Comment

Another year, another beginning - and another brand-new volume of LLM opening up for the 33rd time!

With the 50th Anniversary of the University of Papua New Guinea coming up in September this year, and the 49th Annual Conference of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea planned to be held in its birthplace, UPNG, from the 15th to the17th of June as part of the celebrations, this promises to be a remarkable year for LLM. Not only because we are entering the fourth year of our Renaissance, but because we hope to welcome several of our Founding Editors as guest speakers at LSPNG 2015. Keep an eye out for updates from the conference Organizing Committee - they will be posted regularly on the Kivung Billboard, as well as on our FB page, starting from mid-February.

 In the meantime, LLM Vol. 33/1, 2015 opens with another fascinating paper by Professor Karl Franklin (SIL) on the etymology of 'maski' in Tok Pisin.

Olga Temple, Editor, LLM. 

CONTENTS 

The Etymology of 'maski' in Tok Pisin by K. Franklin (SIL) .....................................................  1

A Further Note on "maskee" and Chinese Pidgin English by K. Franklin (SIL) ......................... 7

The loss of clusivity and the rise of gender in West Oceanic pronominals by René van den Berg .......10

Additional Notes and Commentary on maskee in Chinese Pidgin English by Carl E. Kubler (University of Chicago) ....................................................................................................................................48

The Phonological History of Iaai by John Lynch (University of the South Pacific) ..................... 53

 BOOK REVIEWS 

Pidgins, Creole & Mixed Languages: An Introduction by Viveka Velupillai -Reviewed by Craig Alan Volker (Divine Word University / The Cairns Institute, James Cook University) ....................................78

THE FINAL ARTICLE FOR 2015:

Language Ecology, Language Policy and Pedagogical Practice in a Papua New Guinea Highland Community by F. Merlan & A. Rumsey (ANU) .........................................................................................................  82

LLM Volume 33 (2), 2015

Editorial Comment 

LLM Vol. 33 (2) publishes the Proceedings of the 49th Annual Conference of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea, which took place in Port Moresby from the 15th to the 17th of June, 2015. Held at the Laguna Hotel on Waigani Drive, LSPNG 2015 formed an important part of a series of events, marking the 50th Anniversary of the University of Papua New Guinea, where our Society was founded in October 1967. This year's conference, themed "Promoting Language Education for Sustainable National Development," provided an opportunity for a fruitful exchange of ideas between students, academics, linguists and educators, as well as.policy makers. Different, and sometimes contradictory views on the best way forward in language education policy were presented and discussed. These Proceedings will, therefore, represent a variety of ideas and views on the type of language education that can most effectively produce experts and professionals the country needs to successfully manage its economy in the 21st century.

This volume will close on December 31, 2015, which means that last-minute contributions to these proceedings will be accepted at [email protected] until the last week of December 2015. Conference papers will be published in two categories: articles and Power Point presentations. We begin by publishing an article by Professor Paraide (DWU) on the importance of using the students' cultural knowledge in the teaching of mathematics.

Olga Temple, LLM Editor

CONTENTS 

Formalizing Indigenous Number and Measurement Knowledge by Patricia Paraide (DWU) ....................... 1

Attitudes towards the Use of Tok Pisin and Tolai as Languages of Instruction in Lower Primary Schools in Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea by K. Devette-Chee (NRI) ...........................  16

Repetition and Anaphora as a Cohesive Device in Eibela Discourse by Grant Aiton (JCU) .. 35

PLENARY: Learning about Language in Papua New Guinea Villages: Some Personal Vignettes by William A Foley (University of Sydney)  ...................................................................................45

Fossilization of English in PNG by Jillian Thiele (PAU) ............................................................60

Effect of Early Language Education on UPNG Students? Academic Performance by Olga Temple, Signe Dalsgaard & Kamene Sakarepe (UPNG) .................................................................................................77

Changes in Mother Tongue Education Policy in Papua New Guinea by Robert Litteral (SIL-International) ................................................................................................................................................................    93

A SELECTION OF PPTs PRESENTED @ LSPNG 2015

On Bilingual Education by Wari S. Kanama (UPNG) 

Iconic Phonics by Robbie & Debbie Petterson (SIL)

Changes in Mother Tongue Education Policy in PNG by Robert Litteral (SIL)

Effect of ELL on UPNG students' performance_Temple, Dalsgaard, & Kamene (UPNG)

The Vernacular Path to English (SIL)

Dilemma in Understanding Mathematics Concepts_Ope & Bala

Pidgin Prevalence Detrimental to Local Lingua Survivability by Johnson Ahupa (UoG)

 Renegade Societies_Faraclas_PPT1

Relatedness as a Feature of Grammatical Organization_Faraclas_PPT2

Learning about Language_FOLEY_PPT

Linguistic Boundaries_NILES_PPT

Maeaka Tohana_PPT

GIVE in PAPUAN LANGUAGES_BARLOW_PPT

Language Education_Pogla_PPT

Training Translators in PNG_STUDENT PPTs

Maopa_STUDENTS PPTs

 

LLM Volume 32 (1), 2014

EDITORIAL COMMENT

LLM is proud to be actively contributing  to the growth and development of linguistic thought in Melanesia. This year's volume opens up with a description of gender and noun-class marking in some languages of North and Central Vanuatu by Dr. Hannah Vari-Bogiri of the University of South Pacific.

The Editorial Board of LLM would like to use this opportunity to remind our readers that we are 'open for business' and are eager to serve our mission of cultivating linguistic thought in Melanesia and bringing it to wider audiences.

The Editor, LLM

CONTENTS 

Gender and Noun-Class Marking in Some Languages of North and Central Vanuatu by Vari-Bogiri, H. (University of South Pacific) ................................................................................................. 1

A Note on the Etymology of ?Bulmakau? in Tok Pisin by Karl J Franklin (Graduate Institute of Linguistics and SIL International) .................................................................................................................................................. 14

Kâte he 'hit' and qa 'hit': a study in lexicology by Edgar Suter (University of Cologne)................................... 18

LLM Vol. 32 (2), 2014

Editorial Comment

LLM Vol. 32 (2) publishes the Proceedings of the 48th Annual Conference of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea, September 17-19, 2014, in Madang. LSPNG 2014 was held in conjunction with   the 8th Symposium of the Study Group on Music & Dance of Oceania (SGMDO). These Proceedings, therefore, include a selection of papers by both linguists and anthropologists.

This volume will close on December 31, 2014, which means that last-minute contributions to these proceedings will be accepted at [email protected] until the last week of December 2014 Conference papers, preceded by Prof. Aikhenvald?s Plenary Address, are published in two categories: articles and Power Point presentations.

Olga Temple, Editor, Language & Linguistics in Melanesia

 The ICTM Study Group on Music & Dance of Oceania symposium @ LSPNG 2014 by Dr. K. Gillespie

CONTENTS 

 Plenary Address by Prof. A. Aikhenvald of James Cook University, Australia

Grammatical Relations & Information Structure in Eibela: a typological perspective by G. Aiton (James Cook University) ........................................................................................................   1

Enga Imperatives by R.A. Boyd ............................................................................................  26

Failures & Successes in Literacy in Gulf Province Schools by R. & D. Petterson (SIL)  ...   53

The Impact of Immigrants on Language Vitality by B. Paris (PBT-PNG) ..........................  62

Dialectical Analysis of Kuanua & Tok Pisin Sentences by F. Silo & O. Temple (UPNG) .. 76

'Double talk': Parallel structures in Manambu songs, and their origin by A.Y. Aikhenvald . 86

Mining and language change in the Lihir Islands by Dr Kirsty Gillespie (Univ. of Queensland)  ............................................................................................................................................  110

 Tok Pisin and Mobail Teknoloji by Phil King (SIL) ........................................................... 118

 

 PowerPoint Presentations

 Aton, Grant (James Cook University): Optional Case-Marking & Information Structure in Eibela

King, Phil (SIL): Tok Pisin & Mobail Teknoloji

Maitz, P. (Univ. of Augsburg) & Volker, C. (DWU): Documenting & Describing Rabaul Creole German

Merlan, F. & Rumsey, A. (ANU): Bilingual Language Learning in the PNG Highlands

Paris, B. (PBT PNG): The Impact of Immigrants on Language Vitality

Pennington, R. (SIL PNG): Tone in Gadsup Noun Phrases

Petterson, R. & D. (SIL):

                (a) Failures & Successes in Literacy

                (b) Handout

                (c) National Literacy Week 2014 in pictures

Sato, H. (University of Hawaii): Independent Personal Pronouns & Inclusory Constructions in Kove

Silo, F. & Temple, O. (UPNG): Dialectical Analysis of Kuanua & Tok Pisin Sentences

LLM Volume 31(1), 2013

EDITORIAL COMMENT

As ever, Language & Linguistics in Melanesia is committed to being the voice of linguistic thought in the South Pacific. Our exclusively online format gives us unprecedented flexibility and reach – manuscript processing (including anonymous peer review) is no longer predicated on publication deadlines, delays, financial or production constraints. On average, papers are published within two to three weeks of their submission, with email and FB notifications sent out to our friends, members and other interested audiences.

We welcome all original articles, reviews, commentaries and reports on all aspects of language study and applied linguistics. LLM uses the Unified Style Sheet for Linguistic Journals, developed by LSA. Please click on the link under the Instructions to Authors tab on our main toolbar.

LLM Vol. 31 No. 1 2013 opened up with a meticulous study of Adverbs in the Mussau-Emira Verb Phrase by John Brownie of SIL. Prof. Karl J. Franklin of SIL International then gave us A First Look at Proto-Engan Kinship, and we now release a fascinating re-evaluation of the history of Papuan languages by Mark Donohue (ANU). 

Several other papers are in the pipeline and will be published before long! 

CONTENTS 

 Adverbs in the Mussau-Emira Verb Phrase by John Brownie  ...........................................................................1

 A First Look at Proto-Engan Kinship by Karl J. Franklin ................................................................................12

Towards  a Papuan History of Languages by Mark Donohue......... ....................................................................24

Semantics of number in Biak by Mary Dalrymple & Suriel Mofu ..............................................................42


LLM Volume 31(2), 2013 LSPNG 2013 Conference Proceedings

 A Brief Synopsis of LSPNG 2013 International Linguistics Conference in Port Moresby

The Annual LSPNG 2013 Conference was hosted by the University Papua New Guinea from the 24th to the 25th of September, 2013. The Linguistics and Modern Languages Strand, SHSS UPNG, who hosted the conference this year, welcomed participants from Divine Word University, Summer Institute of Linguistics (Ukarumpa), Max Planck Institute (Leipzig, Germany), ANU (Canberra), Universitas Cenderawasih (Indonesia), and Pacific Adventist University.

The Organizers greatly appreciate the effort scholars made to attend and participate in this important event. The synergy of sharing research ideas was remarkable, and enjoyed by all. The Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea is grateful to the University of Papua New Guinea for providing the conference venue, as well as for logistical support. The Organizers also express their deep appreciation to the National Library in Port Moresby for providing a back-up venue for some of the conference sessions. Thanks also go to Mr. Ravu and Jeff of the Audio-Visual Services of UPNG, for videoing the entire event (CDs will soon be available for purchase from the Audio-Visual Services of UPNG); if interested, please send in your orders to [email protected]).

Conference papers were presented in three categories: a) Linguistics and Language Documentation b) Sociolinguistics, Applied Linguistics, Education, Language Policy and Literacy and c) Cultural Communication and Music. The Proceedings below include some of the papers and PPTs presented during the sessions; late submissions will be published, as they are sent in, until the end of the year.

The next LSPNG Conference will be held at Divine Word University in late September 2014.

Kilala Devette-Chee (PhD)

Secretary, LSPNG

Topic as evidence for nominative case in Ma Manda* by Ryan Pennington (SIL PNG) ......................................... 1

Ryan Pennington's PPT presented at LSPNG 2013

Bamboo Flutes, Music Shift, & the End of Groove in an East Sepik Community by Neil R. Coulter (SIL PNG).....27

The Syntax of Semantics: the basics of building complex structures of meaning by Olga Temple (UPNG) ............. 43

Olga Temple's PPT presented at LSPNG 2013 

Benefits of Teaching Sociolinguistics by Jillian Thiel (PAU) .............................................................................. 61

Enabling female married student spouses at Pacific Adventist University by Jillian Thiele (PAU)  ........................ 70

Papua New Guinea?s Distinctive Culture: advice for investors by Jillian Thiele (PAU)  ........................................ 82

Key findings on the use of Tok Pisin and Vernacular Languages in Papua New Guinea Primary Schools by Kilala Devette-Chee (UPNG) ................................................................................  90

Tok Pisin and Hawai'i Creole English: Siblings or Wantoks? by Craig A. Volker (DWU) ...  121

Dr. Craig Volker's PPT presented at LSPNG 2013 

The Give and Take of the Verb Root -kaua in Arop-Lokep [apr] by Lucille S. D'Jernes (SIL)  ................................................................................................................................................. 131

LLM Volume 30, 2012

EDITORIAL COMMENT

Language & Linguistics in Melanesia is proud to serve as an effective outlet for the flow of linguistic thought in the South Pacific and beyond. Our new, exclusively online format has enabled us, for the first time in LLM?s 44-year-old history, to publish new research, fresh opinions and ideas ?hot? and unconstrained by publication schedules.

Starting with the current volume, Language & Linguistics in Melanesia is adopting the ?go-with-the-flow of articles? policy, suggested by some senior members of our Editorial Board. New volumes will ?open? in January of each year and ?close? officially in December, thus allowing for a steady flow of thought and opinion. All submissions will be published online directly, after proper peer-review. We hope that this policy will further stimulate linguistic research and publication, particularly in the South Pacific.

LLM Vol. 30, 2012 is divided into two parts - No. 1 & No. 2. Vol. 30 No. 1 brings to you original peer-reviewed articles, submitted for publication in 2012. The proceedings of the LSPNG 2012 Conference in Ukarumpa (September 25-27, 2012) are currently being published in LLM Vol. 30 No. 2.

LLM Vol. 30 No. 1, 2012 opens with an interesting article by Adam Paliwala (University of Sydney), which emphasizes the importance of collecting data on language use and distribution in Papua New Guinea as part of the National Census (published April 27, 2012).

"Counting Systems in Engan and Proto-Engan" are discussed in a contribution by Prof. Karl J. Franklin, a major figure in Papuan linguistics and former Editor of LLM (published June 9, 2012).

Bernard Comrie and Michael Cysouw, taking advantage of the vast WALS data base of human language features, use innovative statistical methods to make revealing conclusions about  the typology of Austronesian and Papuan languages in their fascinating article "New Guinea through the eyes of WALS" (published June 16, 2012).   

Finally, Brenda H. Boerger of SIL International and Gabrielle Zimmerman of University of Texas at Arlington argue persuasively in favor of recognizing Nalögo and Natügu as separate languages.

Apart from the current volume (LLM Vol. 30 2012), we also bring to you Part I of LLM Special Issue for 2012  with the proceedings of the recent international conference on the History, Contact and Classification of Papuan Languages that was held at the VU University Amsterdam on the 2nd and 3rd of Feb 2012. Part II of the conference proceedings will be published in February, 2013.

The Editor, LLM

 

LLM Vol. 30 No. 1, 2012

CONTENTS 

Language in Papua New Guinea: the Value of Census Data by Adam B. Paliwala ................................. 1

Counting Systems in Engan and Proto-Engan - Karl J. Franklin...................................    ....................32

New Guinea through the eyes of WALS - B. Comrie & M. Cysouw ....................................................65

Recognizing Nalögo and Natügu as separate languages: Code-splitting in ISO 639-3 - B. Boerger & G. Zimmerman .....................................................................................................................................................  95

 

LLM Vol. 30 No. 2, 2012

Report on LSPNG 2012 (Ukarumpa) for  Language & Linguistics in Melanesia (LLM)

Mary Salisbury, Associate Editor LLM, Massey University, SIL Pacific Area Linguistics Coordinator

The papers in LLM Volume 30, No. 2 are compiled from the proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea which was hosted at the new SIL Training Centre at Ukarumpa from 25-27 September 2012.   Thanks to Ray Stegeman (SIL), Malinda­ Ginmauli and their team for a well organised and friendly conference. 

Participants were from University of PNG, University of Goroka, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Pioneer Bible Translators and Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies. Papers were presented by linguists from a range of disciplines, and although there was no overt theme to the conference, most papers focused on documentation of endangered languages of PNG and education in the vernacular ? two major issues that must be addressed to ensure linguistic viability of minority languages in PNG. 

The highlight was seeing 10 undergraduate students from the University of Goroka enthusiastically present grammar sketches or describe aspects of the oral traditions of their own languages. The students also danced as part of the conference closing ceremony.

This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the conference.

There were three presentations on grammatical issues in PNG languages: René van den Berg (SIL) on possessive-benefactive constructions in Oceanic languages, Friedel Frowein (University of Goroka) on an alternative view of realis/irrealis marking in Siar, New Ireland, and Robbie Petterson (SIL) on discourse particles and conjunctions in Ghayavi, Papuan Tip. 

Pro-Vice Chancellor of the University of PNG, Dr Kenneth Sumbuk, presented an overview of the counting system in Sare. Several students at the University of Goroka also presented brief sketches of their own languages: Wanpis Pokea for Kewabi, Southern Highlands; Peter Channel Darek for Megiar, Madang Province; Elvirah Less for Bipi Island language of Manus; Delilah Gura for Wingei dialect of Ambulas, East Sepik.  Interesting features were a senary counting system and OSV basic word order in Wingei; a velar fricative, many numeral classifiers and vowel assimilation in Bipi; and possibly three alveolar liquids in Megiar [r], [l] and [?], the central approximant found in borrowed words. 

Literacy issues were addressed by Mavis Price (SIL), on bridging literacy from Tok Ples and Tok Pisin to English, and by Syd Gould, on the dilemmas faced in the Huli orthography since the introduction of literacy in English. Jens Meyer (SIL) presented a paper expounding the benefits of multilingual education for minority language sustainability.

The themes of language loss, attitudes disfavouring Tok Ples and the need for educational policy to support maintenance of vernacular languages arose in a number of papers.  Kilala Devette-Chee (staff at UPNG and PhD candidate at University of Canberra) spoke on the impact of Tok Pisin and local vernaculars on children?s learning at primary level.  Several papers were presented on aspects of oral traditions from different languages: Dawn Illai (staff, University of Goroka) on Chimbu?s untold tales, and students at University of Goroka: Stanley Norbert on the functions of the Lomu Hangu, a traditional sacred Boiken song, West Sepik; Bernadette Hurokoli Boiefin on Poems, chants and lullabies in Motuna, Bouganville; Samuel Kilien on the use of oral literature in school curricula on Manus Is; Cathy Simon Bungo on Proverbs in Kuman society; Rebecca Peter on metaphoric stories of the Kuma people of Jiwaka; Irene Gamba on Poetry and chants of the Abelam people.  Jessie Sere spoke on kinship terms in Motu. These students were mainly insiders commenting on their own languages.  All lamented the loss of cultural traditions in the current generation and expressed the urgent need for documentation and revitalization.  Jill Riepe (PBT) spoke on recent efforts to revitalise Ap Ma language of the Sepik area through adult literacy and provision of written resources in the language for use in schools, community and church.

Olga Temple (UPNG) spoke about the philosophical nature of language in general and a new, dialectical approach to syntax. Phil King (SIL) reflected on teaching Biblical Hebrew in a Melanesian context from a linguistic perspective.  Don Niles, ethnomusicologist, (Institute of PNG studies) gave an inspiring paper on the use of vocables (nonsense syllables) in traditional PNG songs and presented a type of categorization for various ways language can be affected in singing.  Brian Paris (PBT) presented the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) for assessing linguistic vitality in languages, developed by Gary Simons and Paul Lewis, which is the scale used in the new edition of the Ethnologue which will be published in January 2013.

The next conference of the LSPNG will be held at the University of PNG, Port Moresby, in late September 2013.

 

2012 Conference of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea:  Proceedings 

"Looking for my locusts": The possessive-benefactive connection - René van den Berg ......................1

Linguistic Reflections on Teaching Hebrew in a Melanesian Context - Phil King....................... ............... 8

Syntax through the Wide-Angle Lens of Dialectics by Olga Temple  ................................................................31

The Impact of Tok Pisin and Local Vernaculars on Children?s Learning in Papua New Guinea ? Kilala Devette-Chee  ................................................................................................................................................................ 47

Simbu?s Untold Tales: a Case Study on Oral Stories in Tabare Language by Dawn Solevad Ilai  ..........................60

DAIMAK: Metaphoric Stories of the Kuma People of Jiwaka by Rebecca Peter Bare  ....................................... 68

Supplement to LLM Vol. 30 No. 2, 2012

LLM Volume 29, December 2011

Language and Linguistics in Melanesia (LLM) Volume 29 Dec 2011: Click HERE for FULL TEXT

CONTENTS

Editorial by Prof. Kenneth M. Sumbuk, Managing Editor LLM  .......................................................................  1
Editorial Comment by Prof. John Lynch, Associate Editor LLM .................................................................. 1


Proceedings of the 2011 LSPNG Conference in Ukarumpa

The (Mis)Fortunes of Vernacular Literacy in the Huli Language of the Southern Highlands Province (SHP) by Syd Gould (ECPNG) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2


Highlands Sung Tales: Interdisciplinary Research on a Distinctive Art Form by Don Niles (Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies) ................................................................................................................................................................. 22


Language: captured ?live? through the lens of dialectics by Olga Temple (UPNG) ............................................... 31

Tok Ples in Texting & Social Networking: PNG 2010 by Olga Temple (UPNG) ................................................. 54

A Defining Feature of the Tokpisin Lexicon by Dicks Rae Thomas (UPNG)........................................................65

Articles..................................................................................................................................73-111

Meaning in Melanesia, and some Changes by Peter C Lincoln (University of Hawai?i) ....................................... 73  


The Need for a Better Education in Indigenous Languages: a Case for Alekano by Lawrence Gerry (University of Goroka) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 80


Solomon Islands Initiatives to Support & Enhance the Use of Vernaculars in Early Childhood Education by Ali Glasgow (Victoria University), Bernadine Ha?amori (Ministry of Education & Human Resource Development), Joanna Daiwo and Viola Masala (Solomon Islands College of Higher Education) ........................................................................... 87

Decreolization of Tok Pisin: Is there a Tok Pisin-to-English Continuum? by Kilala Devette-Chee (UPNG)  .......... 95

Sociolinguistic Pressures on Post-Graduate Students from Developing Countries Studying Overseas by Jillian Thiele (Pacific Adventist University)  ...................................................................................................................... 104

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